Bioenergetics (Human Biology IB)


Learn more about how the body acquires, processes and uses energy for better fitness, sporting and work performance and overall health. Professional development training.

Course CodeBSC201
Fee CodeS1
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment


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Understand the Science of Energy

  • Learn how people collect, store and use energy
  • Energy is necessary for all body movement and chemical processes, from running to digesting food.
  • Explore energy for a better understanding of sport, exercise, work or general day to day living.

Learn what is energy, how to increase people's energy levels and maintain them in different situations, when rest is the perfect recovery tool and how to perform exercises for better energy management.What are the factors that makes us move better?  By understanding these factors it is possible to improve management of the body's capacity for movement and to help maintain optimum levels of energy.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


Lesson Structure

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Energy and Work
    • Anaerobic energy supply
    • Phosphate energy
    • Lactic acid energy
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • Aerobic energy supply
    • Energy requirements fordifferent types of activity
    • Breathing during exercise
    • ATP movement
    • ATP sources
    • ATP-PC system
    • Lactic acid system
    • Oxygen system
    • Aerobic systems
    • Krebs cycle
  2. Energy Pathways
    • What is energy
    • The nature of energy
    • Units of measurement
    • Production and storage of energy
    • Carbohydrates in an animal or human body
    • Gycogenesis
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Hyperglycaemia
    • Carbohydrate oxidation
    • Glycolysis
    • Hydrolysis
    • Hydrolysis of metal salts
    • Hydrolysis of an ester link
    • Energy production pathways from different foods: fats, carbohydrates, proteins
    • Respiratory quotient
    • Resting quotientAerobic capacity
    • What happens during exercise
    • Recovery from exercise: Alactacid and lantacid oxygen debt, Replenishing muscular glycogen
    • Lactic acid
    • Calculations
  3. The Acid-Base Balance
    • pH
    • What is acidity
    • The urinary system: Kidneys, ureters, bladder
    • Physiology of the Urinary system
    • The urea cycle
  4. Osmosis and Diffusion
    • Diffusion explained and examples given
    • Nature and types of diffusion
    • Movement of molecules through cell membranes
    • Endocytosis
    • Membranes and their structure
    • Osmosis
    • Osmosis and filtration
    • Membrane transport: simple passive, active and facilitated transport
    • Chemical potential
    • Osmotic pressure
    • Reverse osmosis
  5. Atmospheric Pressure
    • Altitudes
    • Introduction to atmospheric pressure
    • Partial pressure gradients
    • Effects of change in pressure
    • Equalising when diving
    • Gas solubility
    • Breathing at different atmospheric pressures
    • Calculations
  6. Temperature Regulation
    • Introduction
    • Affect of temperature changes on the human body
    • Conduction and convection
    • Lowering temperature: sweating, vasodilation, metabolic reduction, hair, behaviour
    • Raising temperature
    • Vasoconstriction
    • Increased metabolism
    • Behaviour
    • Effect of temperature on enzymes
    • Ecrine glands
    • Apocrine glands
    • Energy production
    • Factors affecting individual BMR: growth, body size, food, thyroid gland
    • Fever: mechanism of fever, shivering, other temperature disorders
    • Grades of fever
    • Signs of fever
  7. Ergogenic Aids to Performance
    • Introduction
    • Drugs: steroids, amphetamines
    • Oxygen
    • Vitamins
    • Water
    • Other foods: carbohydrates, protein
    • Creatine
    • Caffeine
    • Antioxidants

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

  • Explain how energy is used in the human body to create work and power.
  • Explain energy pathways during resting, work and recovery.
  • Explain the significance of the acid-base balance in the body.
  • Explain movement of materials in and out of living cells.
  • Explain the affect of changing atmospheric pressure on the body.
  • Explain temperature regulation in the body.
  • Explain ergogenic aids to body performance during activity/exercise.

What You Will Do

  • Explain biological energy cycles, using illustrations where appropriate.
  • Explain two examples of energy pathways in the body, including an anaerobic and an aerobic pathway.
  • Explain the function of ATP in body energy pathways.
  • Explain the significance of the following terms to understanding body energy pathways:
    • energy
    • work
    • power
    • efficiency during exercise
  • Explain the consumption of oxygen during different stages of activity, including:
    • at rest
    • warming up
    • peak activity
    • cooling down
  • Calculate the net cost of exercise in litres per minute, for a set situation.
  • Explain the measurement of efficiency during the exercise carried out in a set task.
  • Explain problems which may occur in physiological processes during running a marathon.
  • Explain in one paragraph for each, the following acid-base terms with relevance to
    • exercise:
    • Buffer
    • Alkali reserve
    • Alkalosis
    • Acidosis
  • Describe respiratory regulation of pH in the human body.
  • Describe how regulation of pH occurs in the kidneys.
  • Explain the affect of strenuous exercise on body pH.
  • Explain osmosis in a specific biological situation (of your choice).
  • Distinguish between diffusion and facilitated diffusion in the human body.
  • Explain how electrochemical forces maintain cellular equilibrium.
  • Explain how active transport mechanisms occur at a cellular level.
  • Describe three situations where pressure changes can affect body function, including:
    • scuba diving
    • mountain climbing
  • Explain the effects of pressure changes on different parts of the body, including examples of changes due to altitude and scuba diving.
  • Explain the effect of a decompression treatment on a diver suffering from nitrogen narcosis.
  • List mechanisms of heat loss in the human body.
  • List mechanisms of heat gain in the human body.
  • Explain the operation of thermal receptors and effectors in the human body.
  • Describe the exercise session which you underwent in your set task, and explain the maintenance of body temperature during that exercise session.
  • Explain how temperature regulation may be different during peak exercise, to what it may be during exercise at 60-70% effort.
  • Explain the affects of steroids on the body, in relation to both performance, and other health factors, during two different types of activity.
  • Explain the affect of amphetamines, and other performance enhancing drugs on the body, during an activity of your choice.
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of amino acid use to enhance physical activity.
  • Explain the use of blood doping to enhance physical performance in a specific activity.
  • Explain ways oxygen can be used to enhance performance in a specific activity.
  • Explain the effect of different vitamins on three different types of performance.
  • Explain the affect of aspartic acid salts on a specific performance.

ENERGY IS COMPLICATED

The human body is a complex thing. Some scientists can spend their whole life studying just one aspect of the body, and still have more to learn.  This course provides insights into many of the processes that affect the way we acquire and process energy. Lactic acid is just one of many chemicals involved.

WHAT IS LACTIC ACID?

When a maximal effort is continued beyond the extent of the phosphate energy system, energy is provided from glycogen stored in the active muscles. This energy supply is for example being used in 400 metre track races, and 100 metre swimming events. Continuous activities which lead to exhaustion in 45-50 seconds result in maximal values for lactic acid accumulation. Anaerobic energy release from glycogen produces lactic acid, resulting in a feeling of fatigue that will cause an athlete to slow down. Once lactic acid is produced, it requires 45 to 60 minutes to be removed, and for the athlete to recover.

ATP can be supplied to the body in several different ways:

ATP-PC System -Anaerobic

Here the compound phosphocreatine is broken down to produce ATP. When phosphocreatine breaks down it produces phosphorus, creatine and energy. The energy produced is then able to be used by ADP to create ATP. Phosphocreatine is then able to be reconstituted with the addition of energy (which comes from foodstuffs -not from stored ATP/ADP reactions

Lactic Acid System - Anaerobic

This system involves glucose or glycogen going through various chemical processes to produce ATP plus lactic acid. One glucose molecule is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of oxygen, and in turn, produces two ATP molecules. The amount of ATP produced this way is small. This is a more complex procedure using only carbohydrates as its food fuel, and not requiring oxygen for the process. A problem with this process is that it can cause an accumulation of lactic acid in the body, which can affect blood Ph. Blood pH should be around 7.3, and never drop below 6.8. The lactic acid system is however self limiting, and should not normally develop such problems.
 

HOW CAN THIS COUR HELP ME?

If you would like to work in the fitness industry, or already work within it as a fitness trainer or other fitness professional, then understanding how human beings collect, store and use energy is fundamental to working out viable fitness programs.

This course can help you in a number of careers including fitness, exercise science and health science.

It is a follow on course for those that have done the Human Anatomy and Physiology course or have done prior studies elsewhere.

 

 

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Karen Lee

Nutritional Scientist, Dietician, Teacher and Author. BSc. Hons. (Biological Sciences), Postgraduate Diploma Nutrition and Dietetics. Registered dietitian in the UK, with over 15 years working in the NHS. Karen has undertaken a number of research projec
Lyn Quirk

M.Prof.Ed.; Adv.Dip.Compl.Med (Naturopathy); Adv.Dip.Sports Therapy Over 30 years as Health Club Manager, Fitness Professional, Teacher, Coach and Business manager in health, fitness and leisure industries. As business owner and former department head fo
Jade Sciascia

Biologist, Business Coordinator, Government Environmental Dept, Secondary School teacher (Biology); Recruitment Consultant, Senior Supervisor in Youth Welfare, Horse Riding Instructor (part-completed) and Boarding Kennel Manager. Jade has a B.Sc.Biol, Di