Biochemistry III (Animal Processes)

Learn about biochemistry and its application to animal systems, such as DNA structure, energy processing, and more.

Course Code: BSC303
Fee Code: S3
Duration (approx) Duration (approx) 100 hours
Qualification Statement of Attainment
Get started!

Learn more about the metabolic processes that sustain life

Delve deeper into biochemistry with this intermediate level course. his course is designed for people working or wishing to work in a human or animal health or science related profession, as practitioner, educator or researcher. 

In this course, you'll examine a wide range of detailed metabolic processes, including:

  • glycolysis and glycogen metabolism
  • lipid, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism
  • enzyme activity
  • sugar and polysaccharide metabolism
  • electron transport oxidative phosphorylation and movement across membranes

...and more. 

Gain a deeper understanding of life processes. A course designed for people working or wishing to work in a human health sciencesanimal health sciences and other science related professions such as health care practitioner, educator or researcher. Learn to explain a range of common biochemical processes - with an emphasis upon animal and human biochemical processes. 

PrerequisiteBiochemistry II - or equivalent knowledge

Lesson Structure

There are 10 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction
    • Including: sources of energy; the digestive process as a source of energy; components of the cell; catabolic and anabolic metabolism, energy exchanges; free energy; enthalpy; entropy; energy transporters; ATP; oxidation-reduction process; enzymes.
  2. Glycolysis and Glycogen Metabolism
    • Including: glucose, glycolysis; activation of glycolysis; metabolism of pyruvate; glycogen; fructose and galactose.
  3. Movement through Membranes
    • Including: membranes; kinetics and mechanisms of movement; mediated and non-mediated transport; passive mediated glucose transport; ion gradient active transport; ATP driven active transport; ionophores.
  4. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Including: the mitochondrion; electron transport; oxidative phosphorylation; citric acid cycle; control of ATP production.
  5. Sugar and Polysaccharide Metabolism
    • Including: sugars; glycoproteins; biosynthesis of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins; pentose phosphate pathway.
  6. Lipid Metabolism
    • Including: lipids, lipid metabolism; pancreas and bile acid; transport across the mitochondrial membrane; fatty acid oxidation in the mitochondrion; beta oxidation; unsaturated fatty acid oxidation; ketone bodies; biosynthesis of fatty acids; metabolic control and regulation of fatty acid metabolism; cholesterol synthesis, control of cholesterol biosynthesis and transport; arachidonate metabolism; phospholipid and glycolipid metabolism.
  7. Amino Acid Metabolism
    • Including: amino acids, amino acid metabolism, transamination, synthesis, amino acid catabolism; glucogenic and ketogenic; the urea cycle; biosynthetic precursors and the role of amino acids; physiologically active amines; biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids; biosynthesis of essential amino acids; aspartate family; pyruvate family; aromatic family; histidine; major organs; nitrogen fixation.
  8. Nucleotide Metabolism
    • Including: nuclei acids; nucleotides; synthesis and regulation of ribonucleotides; purines; pyrimidines; formation of DNA, nucleotide degradation; purine catabolism; purine nucleotide cycle; nucleotide coenzymes in animals.
  9. Enzyme Activity
    • Including: enzymes; enzyme classification; enzyme kinetics; enzyme regulation; induced fit; lock and key mechanism.
  10. Other Processes
    • Including: homeostasis; hormones; neurotransmitters; signalling cascade; receptor binding; nuclear localisation signals.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


  • Explain the interaction between the various biochemical processes within the animal cell.
  • Explain the processes of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism.
  • Understand the transport mechanism of bio-chemicals through animal membranes.
  • Explain the processes of electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation, and their importance to energy regulation in animals.
  • Explain the metabolism of carbohydrates.
  • Explain the metabolism of lipids
  • Explain the metabolism of amino acids.
  • Explain biochemical nucleotide metabolism
  • Explain enzyme reactions and catalysis in biochemistry.
  • Explain other biochemical processes including biochemical communication through hormones and neurotransmission.

What You Will Do

  • Discuss the most common three macromolecules in living beings.
  • Research and discuss carbohydrate metabolism disorders.
  • Discuss nerve impulses and nerve impulse propagation.
  • Research and discuss mitochondrial faults.
  • Work through potential patient discussions.
  • Undertake a Problem Based Learning Project regarding certain cancers and cancer-related conditions.
  • Discuss phenylketonuria and its disease progression.

Biochemistry is a Foundation for All Work in Applied Biology

Human and animal bodies are made up of lots of different chemicals which are constantly changing.

  • Chemicals are eaten (as food), breathed in (in the air); and excreted (eg. sweat, our bowels and urine).
  • In between, these chemicals move around the body and change form, breaking down into simpler chemicals, or combining together to form larger chemicals. Some are used to create energy allowing movement; other are used to create body tissues. Old tissues break down to produce chemicals that can be excreted, and some chemicals are stored away for later use, perhaps as fat.

This course assumes you have a broad understanding of biochemistry (achieved in Biochemistry I) and an understanding of the different types of molecules (achieved through Biochemistry II); and based on that assumption; it concentrates on expanding and deepening your understanding of these chemical changes that happen to chemicals while they are within an animal or human body.


What Does a Metabolic Process Look Like?

The Citric Acid Cycle is an example of one such process.

"The Citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle after the scientist who first described the features of this metabolic sequence. This cycle takes place in the mitochondria where the required enzymes are located; because of this location there is a direct interaction between electrons of this cycle and those of the mitochondria electron transport.

This is a very important cycle in the cell and it accounts for the major portion of carbohydrate, fatty acid and amino acid oxidation and it is also the source of numerous biosynthetic precursors. It is therefore an amphibolic (both anabolic and catabolic) pathway and one that the cell has to regulate very carefully.

In the TCA cycle, the acetyl CoA which was obtained from the pyruvic acid is completely oxidized to H2O and CO2 through a sequence of reactions. The pyruvic acid from the glycolysis enters the mitochondria and then gets oxidized to acetyl CoA with the help of the pyruvic dehydrogenase complex. Acetyl CoA is the fuel for the TCA cycle.

There are a series of 8 reactions in the TCA cycle that end up in the production of 2 carbon dioxide molecules and the generation of 3 NADH and 1 FADH. The first step of the cycle involves the condensation of the acetyl CoA with an oxaloacetate; this oxaloacetate gets regenerated at the end of the cycle so you find that an infinite number of acetyl CoA will get totally oxidized through a single oxaloacetate.

The rate determining steps of the TCA cycle are catalysed by the enzymes Citrate Synthase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The underlying mechanism is dictated by substrate availability, product inhibition and inhibition by other substrate intermediates."

Why Do You Need to Know about Biochemical Processes?

Understanding what happens inside the body (animal or human) is a basis for influence what happens to the body.
This has obvious advantages for anyone who wants or needs to influence body chemistry; from fitness professionals to farmers.

Member of Study Gold Coast Education Network.
Member of Study Gold Coast Education Network.
ACS Global Partner - Affiliated with colleges in seven countries around the world.
ACS Global Partner - Affiliated with colleges in seven countries around the world.
Since 1999 ACS has been a recognised member of IARC (International Approval and Registration Centre). A non-profit quality management organisation servicing education.
Since 1999 ACS has been a recognised member of IARC (International Approval and Registration Centre). A non-profit quality management organisation servicing education.

How can I start this course?

You can enrol at anytime and start the course when you are ready. Enrolments are accepted all year - students can commence study at any time. All study is self paced and ACS does not set assignment deadlines.

Please note that if a student is being assisted by someone else (e.g. an employer or government subsidy), the body offering the assistance may set deadlines. Students in such situations are advised to check with their sponsor prior to enrolling. The nominal duration of a course is approximately how long a course takes to complete. A course with a nominal duration of 100 hours is expected to take roughly 100 hours of study time to complete. However, this will vary from student to student. Short courses (eg. 100 hrs duration) should be completed within 12 months of enrolment. Certificates, Advanced Certificates and Awards (eg. over 500 hours duration) would normally be completed within 3 -5 years of enrolment. Additional fees may apply if a student requires an extended period to complete.
If a student cannot submit their assignments for 6 months to ACS, they should advise the school to avoid cancellation of their student
registration. Recommencement fees may apply.

Simply click on the ENROL OPTIONS button at the top of this screen and follow the prompts.

You can see the course price at the top of this page. Click 'enrolment options' to see any payment options available.

You can pay by Credit Card, PayPal, Afterpay or bank transfer.

Yes! We have payment plans for most courses. Click 'enrolment options' to see the available payment plans.
We also have Afterpay that will allow you to pay for your course or payment plans in four instalments (if you are in Australia).

What do I need to know before I enrol?

There are no entry requirements that you need to meet to enrol in our courses, our courses are for everyone.
If you are under 18, we need written permission from your parent/ guardian for your enrolment to continue, we can arrange that after you have enrolled.

You don’t need to purchase any additional resources to complete our courses.

We aim to teach you the essentials without you having to purchase any specific computer program.
We recommend that you have access to a word processing program, such as Microsoft Word or Google Docs, so that you can easily complete and submit your assignments.

You sure can. We are here to help you learn whatever your abilities.

Yes, if you are enrolling in a Certificate or Advanced Certificate, you might be eligible for credits if you have evidence of your previous studies or relevant experience. More information is here.

We recommend that you are able to browse websites, send emails and conduct online research. You will need to be able to type and submit your assignments.
If you have limited computer skills, we can make special arrangements for you.

This is possible, it depends on the institution. We recommend that if you would like to use our courses that you contact the institution first. Our Course Handbook is a good resource for this.

Our courses are written in English and we only have English speaking academic staff. If you can read and complete your assignments in English, our courses are ideal for you.

Our courses are designed to build knowledge, hands on skills and industry connections to help prepare you to work in the area, running your own business, professional development or as a base for further study.

This course has been designed to cover the fundamentals of the topic. It will take around 100 hours to complete, which includes your course reading, assignment work, research, practical tasks, watching videos and anything else that is contained in the course. Our short courses are a great way to do some professional development or to learn a new skill.

It’s up to you. The study hours listed in the course are a rough guide, however if you were to study a short course (100 hours) at 10 hours per week, you could finish the course in 10 weeks (just an example). Our courses are self-paced, so you can work through the courses in your own time. We recommend that you wait for your tutor to mark and return your assignment before your start your next one, so you get the benefits of their feedback.

The course consists of course notes, videos, set tasks for your practical work, online quizzes, an assignment for each lesson (that you receive feedback from your tutor from) and ends in an exam (which is optional, if would like to receive the formal award at the end), using our custom built Learning Management System - Login.Training.

Our courses are designed for adults to gain professional development and skills to further their careers and start businesses.

Our custom online learning portal allows you to conduct your learning online. There may be practical tasks that you can do offline. You have the option of downloading your course notes or print them to read later.

There is also the option to pay an additional fee for printed course notes and or USB (availability limited to location and deliverability).

Yes, if you don’t have access to the internet, you can receive the course as paper notes or on a USB stick for an additional fee. We can also make alternative arrangements for you to send your assignments to us.

We offer printed notes for an additional fee. Also, you can request your course notes on a USB stick for an additional fee.

Yes, your tutor is here to help you. Simply post any questions you have in your portal or contact the office and we can pass on a message to your tutor.

We are more learning focussed, rather than assessment focussed. You have online quizzes to test your learning, written assignments and can complete an exam at the end of the course (if you want to receive your certificate). You will not receive a pass/ fail on your course work. If you need to add more details on your assignment, we will ask you to resubmit and direct you where you need to focus. If you need help, you can ask your tutor for advice in the student room.

Each module (short course) is completed with one exam.

Exams are optional, however you must sit an exam if you would like to receive a formal award. You will need to find someone who can supervise that you are sitting the exams under exams conditions. There is an additional cost of $60 incl. GST for each exam.
More information is here

There are practical components built into the course that have been designed to be achieved by anyone, anywhere. If you are unable to complete a task for any reason, you can ask your tutor for an alternative.

When you complete the course work and the exam and you will be able receive your course certificate- a Statement of Attainment. Otherwise, you can receive a Letter of Completion.

You can bundle the short courses to create your own customised learning bundle, Certificates or Advanced Certificates. More information is on this page.

Yes, our courses are built to be applicable for people living anywhere in any situation. We provide the fundamentals, and each student can apply their own unique flair for their own interests, region and circumstances with the one-on-one guidance of a tutor. There is also a bit of student directed research involved.

Employers value candidates with industry skills, knowledge, practical skills and formal learning. Our courses arm you with all of these things to help prepare you for a job or start your own business. The longer you study the more you will learn.

ACS has an arrangement with OAMPS (formerly AMP) who can arrange Professional Indemnity from Australian and New Zealand graduates across all disciplines. Ph: 1800 222 012 or email

Who are ACS Distance Education?

ACS Distance Education have been educating people for over 40 years.

We are established and safe- we have been in education for over 40 years.
We are focused on developing innovative courses that are relevant to you now and what you will need to know in the future.
We are focused on helping you learn and make the most of your experience.
You can enrol at any time, you can work on your course when it suits you and at your own pace.
We are connected to many industry bodies and our staff participate in continuous improvement and learning activities to ensure that we are ahead of what learning is needed for the future.

Our courses are not accredited by the Australian Government. However many of our courses are recognised and held in high regard by many industry bodies.

Our courses are written by our staff, who all have many years experience and have qualifications in their speciality area. We have lots of academic staff who write and update our courses regularly.

How do I enrol my staff/ sponsored students?

Yes, you can do a request for a bulk enrolment and request an invoice on our Invoice Request Form

We can prepare an invoice, quote or proforma invoice. Simply complete your details on our Invoice Request form

We can arrange bulk discounts for your course enrolment, please get in touch with us to discuss your needs.

Yes, we have many students who are in locked facilities, such as prisons or hospitals. We can cater by also offering paper notes at an additional cost.

What if I have any more questions or need more information?

We can assist you to find the right course for your needs. Get in touch with us via email ( call on +61 7 5562 1088 or complete our course advice form.

What if I change my mind?

Please get in touch with if you would like to be removed from our mail list.

If you would like ACS Distance Education to delete your information at any time (whether you are a customer or a prospective customer), please contact our privacy officer and we will process this ( ).

Course Contributors

The following academics were involved in the development and/or updating of this course.

Need Help?

Take advantage of our personalised, expert course counselling service to ensure you're making the best course choices for your situation.

I agree for ACS Distance Education to contact me and store my information until I revoke my approval. For more info, view our privacy policy.