Arboriculture I

Learn to care for and maintain trees. Online course includes species identification, planting, establishment, health, training, pruning, tree surgery and more. A broad foundation course for arborists, gardeners and landscapers.

Course Code: BHT106
Fee Code: S2
Duration (approx) Duration (approx) 100 hours
Qualification Statement of Attainment
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The Ideal Introduction to Tree Science

Arboriculture is the science of how trees grow and respond to their environment as well as how to nurture them.

This course covers techniques and practices used to cultivate trees so as to maintain them in good health.  This includes things like selecting appropriate trees for the conditions, planting and staking, watering and how to fertilise different trees, types of pruning, cabling and bracing damaged tree limbs,  diagnosing problems such as nutritional disorders, controlling pests and diseases, transplanting and tree removal.

Gain skills and knowledge to diagnose and treat tree disorders

This course develops your skills and understanding in diagnosis and treatment of tree disorders.

  • Learn to deal with pest, diseases, nutritional deficiences, water problems effectively.
  • Save money with correct identification of tree disorder
  • Improve your safety with correct tree surgery practices
  • Increase produce with correct pruning and training procedures

This course is essential for anyone working with trees.

Suitable for:

  • horticulturalists
  • gardeners
  • tree doctors
  • farmers
  • anyone involved with trees

8 Lessons each with a set task, 8 assignments. Course notes. Online & e-learning courses have self assessment tests.

This in-depth and comprehensive course will enable you prevent tree disorders as well diagnose and treat existing problems with trees including soil issues.

All too often trees are the forgotten giants of our garden areas. A shrub or ground cover plant is far closer to the human eye than a tree, and these plants usually get most of our attention because they are so easily seen. With trees it often seems to be "out of sight, out of mind".

Trees are in fact potentially far greater problems than shrubs. If a shrub blows over, it creates a bit of a mess and a gap in the garden bed. If a tree blows over, it can destroy half the garden, make a large hole in the roof of a house, or crush your new car. Trees, like people, can be hurt, they can get sick, and sooner or later they will die. They need to be fed and watered, and they do need "doctoring" if their life is to be extended to the fullest. Some trees, like some people, are hardier and never seem to become ill. In the same way, however, many trees have "medical" problems which no one seems to notice until it is too late!

Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction to Arboriculture
    • Trees in the garden, Planting in the right position, Choosing the right variety, Choosing the right specimen, How to plant different types of trees, Transplanting, Tree Guards, Using a Tree Report Form
  2. Tree Biology
    • Tree growth, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Transpiration, Vernilisation, What makes foliage change colour, Tree physiology, Roots, Stems, Leaves, Bud types, How a tree grows, Vascular tissue, Cambium, Xylem, Phloem, Secondary growth, Growth rings, Heartwood, Sapwood, Compartmentalisation, Water and plant growth, Growth rate factors, Arboricultural terminology
  3. Soils In Relation to Trees
    • Fertilising, Compacted soils, Tree health and drainage, Treating soil over winter, Changed soil levels around trees, Measuring pH, Measuring soil organic content, Measuring water content, Determining fertiliser solubility, Testing affect of lime on soil, Laboratory testing of soils, Soil texture, Measuring salinity, Soil horizons, Soil Naming, Soil nutrition, Fertilisers, etc
  4. Diagnosing Tree Problems
    • Tree health disorders, Frost protection, Minimising frost and wind damage, Mulch and frost, Missletoe, Diagnosing problems, Conducting a Tree inspection
  5. Tree Surgery
    • Tree surgery-do you need it, Review of techniques, Tree surgery safety, Safety and the worker, Public safety, Safety regulations, Cavity treatments, Bracing, Cabling, Propping, Bark wounds, Tree climbing techniques, Knots, Anchoring points, etc.
  6. Pruning of Trees
    • Pruning objectives, Removing branches, Crown cleaning, Crown thinning, Crown reduction, Crown lifting, Crown renewal, Fruit tree pruning, Felling a whole tree, Felling sections of a tree, terminology.
  7. Aboriculture Equipment
    • Secateurs, Hand saws, Power tools, Safety with electricity, Engine and tool maintenance, Chain saws, Hedge trimmers, Ladders, Harnesses, Ropes, Pole belt, Spurs, etc
  8. Workplace Health and Safety
    • Duty of Care, Lifting & manual handling, Protective equipment, Handling tools and machinery, Auditing tools and equipment

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

  • Describe measures to provide healthy trees in different situations, including appropriate plant selection.
  • Explain tree biology, including morphology, anatomy and physiology, as it relates to arboriculture.
  • Develop procedures to manage soils for improved tree growth.
  • Develop procedures for managing health disorders with trees, including environmental, pest and disease problems.
  • Determine surgical techniques commonly used in arboriculture to repair damage to plants
  • Explain tree surgery techniques commonly used in arboriculture to prune growth.
  • Determine appropriate equipment for arboricultural practice.
  • Determine appropriate workplace health and safety practices for an arboricultural workplace.

What You Will Do

  • Distinguish between plants in order to identify many different trees.
  • Develop a standard tree report form, customised for surveying the condition and use of trees in your locality.
  • Explain how to treat three specified soil related problems that can effect trees.
  • Develop a twelve month program, for managing a health problem detected by you in an established tree.
  • Demonstrate bridge grafting across a bark wound.
  • Distinguish between different methods of pruning including:
    • Canopy reduction -Cleaning out -Topiary -Espaliering
  • Determine the minimum equipment required to commence business as a tree surgeon.
  • Compare different chainsaws, to determine appropriate applications for each.
  • Determine legislation which is relevant to a specific arborist in a workplace which you visit.

HOW DO TREES ROT?

Understanding tree rotting is fundamental to working in arboriculture.
 
The process of compartmentalisation refers to how a tree naturally resists pathogen attack. It was first described in the 1970's and 1980s by an American scientist, Dr Alex Shigo. He described it as the CODIT system: compartmentalisation of decay in trees. The following is a summary of this process.
 

If a tree is healthy it has a natural tendency to contain the spread of wood rots as explained below:

Tree trunks and branches are made up of a series of "compartments”. The compartment walls are not actual anatomical features, but are naturally occurring boundaries within woody stems.

  • Disease/wood rots find it more difficult to break through one compartment into the next than spread within a compartment.
  • When microorganisms first attack a tree, chemicals are deposited around the wound which create a barrier to the spread of infection.
  • Some microorganisms can grow through this barrier, allowing other microorganisms to move in behind the first invaders. A snowball effect can occur, with successions of microorganisms causing further damage, and making the spread of infection difficult to contain.
  • Another "compartment" which acts to prevent the spread of decay is the "wall" of new wood and bark tissue which is produced each year. (ie. each ring you see in the cut section of wood is a barrier to infection).
  • Wood rots thus move up and down a trunk (within a tree ring) than they do further into the centre of the tree.

 

The Importance of Compartmentalisation to Arborists

Trees vary in their ability to compartmentalise decay. Some species do not readily form compartments, for example, Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Brachychiton, Erythrina (coral tree) and Liriodendron (tulip tree) species.

Tree vigour, pathogen virulence and the effects of further wounding are also important factors. Tree surgery practices such as pruning, bracing and cavity treatment, which inflict further wounds on trees, may interfere with this natural process and cause the decay to spread to new wood. For this reason, cavity drilling and rod bracing of cavities are no longer standard arboriculture techniques (see next section on Tree Surgery Techniques).


WHAT MAKES FOLIAGE CHANGE COLOUR IN AUTUMN?

Everyone likes autumn foliage; but understanding it and what it means can be important for the way you manage trees.
Deciduous plants shed their leaves in autumn or early winter, and are fully or partially devoid of foliage over the colder months of the year. This is an adaptation that allows the plant to better survive unfavourable conditions (such as extreme cold).

Prior to leaves dropping they undergo a period of senescence.

Senescence is the period during which leaf cells progressively die

Over this senescence period, tissue at the leaf base progressively dies, until finally a complete section of tissue between the leaf and the stem is dead (At this point there is nothing left to hold the leaf to the stem; so it detaches and drops to the ground.)

As senescence occurs, the amount of chlorophyll in the leaf (which gives it the normal green colour) reduces. Chlorophyll is actually only one of many pigments that generally occur in leaves; but it is usually the strongest pigment, and for that reason alone, most leaves usually appear green if the plant is healthy.

Other types of pigment chemicals commonly found in leaves include:

  • Anthocyanins – Reds, Blues and Purples
  • Carotenoids – Yellows and Oranges

Generally carotenoids also decompose rapidly in autumn, but anthocyanins break down much more slowly.

Often anthocyanins can still be at close to 100% normal levels when only 40% of normal chlorophyll and carotenoids remain. Anthocyanins are produced through chemical processes, from excess sugars in the leaves, particularly in the presence of bright light. In view of this fact; the level of anthocyanins will be stronger if the plant has been actively photosynthesising (producing sugars) over summer, combined with lots of bright autumn days (if weather is frequently overcast and dull in late summer and autumn; the production of anthocyanins is decreased).

Lower temperatures in autumn reduce the movement of sugar around the leaf, so if the weather changes from warm to cool fast, the leaf sugar remains high and anthocyanins build up; otherwise the levels of these pigments might not be so high. High levels of anthocyanins will generally result in more vivid autumn foliage colours.

Variations

Autumn colour can still vary from plant to plant within a species. Variations include:

  • the time at which colour occurs (some produce colour earlier, others later)
  • the duration of colour (some maintain good colour for longer periods)
  • the intensity of colour

Such variations can be affected by:

  • duration of seasons
  • severity of seasons
  • whether climatic changes are gradual or more abrupt
  • aspect (whether it faces north or south, east or west
  • degree of protection (whether it is exposed or protected by walls or other plants)
  • genetics
  • sex (eg. parentage of cutting/grafting material can have a significant effect in some plants

HOW TO GET YOUR CAREER ON THE RIGHT PATH

You don't become a competent arborist undertaking quickie short courses -it takes time to learn properly and embed knowledge into your mind; and it takes a properly constructed learning experience supported by capable and knowledgeable educators.

Even the best course can only take you so far though -if you have the proper foundation to build upon (through your studies); you will continue learning afterwards, through experience; and your learning is probably going to be faster, easier and more appropriate.

This is the path we strive to set you on!


What Should You Study?

 
Let us help you make the Best Decision for You!

  • Contact us and tell us about your passions and ambitions
  • Let us understand your situation so we can advise you properly
  • Then make a better unformed decision about what to study.

 

How This Course Could Help You

Knowledge of trees helps many people do their job properly including:

Arborists
Gardeners
Tree technicians
Council workers/contractors
Environmentalists
Those doing environmental reports
Those assessing sites or specified trees during development work
People working in re-vegetation
People working in rehabilitation of sites e.g. farms, mining areas, reafforestation etc.
Those assessing trees for public safety

 

Principal of ACS Distance Education, John Mason, is fellow of the CIH.

Member of Study Gold Coast Education Network.

ACS Global Partner - Affiliated with colleges in seven countries around the world.

Member Nursery and Garden Industry Association.

Since 1999 ACS has been a recognised member of IARC (International Approval and Registration Centre). A non-profit quality management organisation servicing education.

ACS is a Preferred Member Training Provider with the Australian Institute of Horticulture. ACS students meeting AIH criteria can join AIH as a Category 2 student member.

ACS is an organisational member of the Future Farmers Network.

Principal John Mason has been honoured to be awarded a Fellow of Parks and Leisure Australia, having been an active member since 1974.

Our Principal John Mason, was awarded a fellowship by the Australian Institute of Horticulture in 2010

UK Register of Learning Providers, UK PRN10000112


How can I start this course?

You can enrol at anytime and start the course when you are ready. Enrolments are accepted all year - students can commence study at any time. All study is self paced and ACS does not set assignment deadlines.

Please note that if a student is being assisted by someone else (e.g. an employer or government subsidy), the body offering the assistance may set deadlines. Students in such situations are advised to check with their sponsor prior to enrolling. The nominal duration of a course is approximately how long a course takes to complete. A course with a nominal duration of 100 hours is expected to take roughly 100 hours of study time to complete. However, this will vary from student to student. Short courses (eg. 100 hrs duration) should be completed within 12 months of enrolment. Certificates, Advanced Certificates and Awards (eg. over 500 hours duration) would normally be completed within 3 -5 years of enrolment. Additional fees may apply if a student requires an extended period to complete.
If a student cannot submit their assignments for 6 months to ACS, they should advise the school to avoid cancellation of their student
registration. Recommencement fees may apply.

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What do I need to know before I enrol?

There are no entry requirements that you need to meet to enrol in our courses, our courses are for everyone.
If you are under 18, we need written permission from your parent/ guardian for your enrolment to continue, we can arrange that after you have enrolled.

You don’t need to purchase any additional resources to complete our courses.

We aim to teach you the essentials without you having to purchase any specific computer program.
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You sure can. We are here to help you learn whatever your abilities.

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We recommend that you are able to browse websites, send emails and conduct online research. You will need to be able to type and submit your assignments.
If you have limited computer skills, we can make special arrangements for you.

This is possible, it depends on the institution. We recommend that if you would like to use our courses that you contact the institution first. Our Course Handbook is a good resource for this.

Our courses are written in English and we only have English speaking academic staff. If you can read and complete your assignments in English, our courses are ideal for you.

Our courses are designed to build knowledge, hands on skills and industry connections to help prepare you to work in the area, running your own business, professional development or as a base for further study.

This course has been designed to cover the fundamentals of the topic. It will take around 100 hours to complete, which includes your course reading, assignment work, research, practical tasks, watching videos and anything else that is contained in the course. Our short courses are a great way to do some professional development or to learn a new skill.

It’s up to you. The study hours listed in the course are a rough guide, however if you were to study a short course (100 hours) at 10 hours per week, you could finish the course in 10 weeks (just an example). Our courses are self-paced, so you can work through the courses in your own time. We recommend that you wait for your tutor to mark and return your assignment before your start your next one, so you get the benefits of their feedback.

The course consists of course notes, videos, set tasks for your practical work, online quizzes, an assignment for each lesson (that you receive feedback from your tutor from) and ends in an exam (which is optional, if would like to receive the formal award at the end), using our custom built Learning Management System - Login.Training.

Our courses are designed for adults to gain professional development and skills to further their careers and start businesses.

Our custom online learning portal allows you to conduct your learning online. There may be practical tasks that you can do offline. You have the option of downloading your course notes or print them to read later.

There is also the option to pay an additional fee for printed course notes and or USB (availability limited to location and deliverability).

Yes, if you don’t have access to the internet, you can receive the course as paper notes or on a USB stick for an additional fee. We can also make alternative arrangements for you to send your assignments to us.

We offer printed notes for an additional fee. Also, you can request your course notes on a USB stick for an additional fee.

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We are more learning focussed, rather than assessment focussed. You have online quizzes to test your learning, written assignments and can complete an exam at the end of the course (if you want to receive your certificate). You will not receive a pass/ fail on your course work. If you need to add more details on your assignment, we will ask you to resubmit and direct you where you need to focus. If you need help, you can ask your tutor for advice in the student room.

Each module (short course) is completed with one exam.

Exams are optional, however you must sit an exam if you would like to receive a formal award. You will need to find someone who can supervise that you are sitting the exams under exams conditions. There is an additional cost of $55 (AUS) $50 (O/S) for each exam.
More information is here

There are practical components built into the course that have been designed to be achieved by anyone, anywhere. If you are unable to complete a task for any reason, you can ask your tutor for an alternative.

When you complete the course work and the exam and you will be able receive your course certificate- a Statement of Attainment. Otherwise, you can receive a Letter of Completion.

You can bundle the short courses to create your own customised learning bundle, Certificates or Advanced Certificates. More information is on this page.

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Employers value candidates with industry skills, knowledge, practical skills and formal learning. Our courses arm you with all of these things to help prepare you for a job or start your own business. The longer you study the more you will learn.

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Who are ACS Distance Education?

ACS Distance Education have been educating people for over 40 years.

We are established and safe- we have been in education for over 40 years.
We are focused on developing innovative courses that are relevant to you now and what you will need to know in the future.
We are focused on helping you learn and make the most of your experience.
You can enrol at any time, you can work on your course when it suits you and at your own pace.
We are connected to many industry bodies and our staff participate in continuous improvement and learning activities to ensure that we are ahead of what learning is needed for the future.

Our courses are not accredited by the Australian Government. However many of our courses are recognised and held in high regard by many industry bodies.

Our courses are written by our staff, who all have many years experience and have qualifications in their speciality area. We have lots of academic staff who write and update our courses regularly.


How do I enrol my staff/ sponsored students?

Yes, you can do a request for a bulk enrolment and request an invoice on our Invoice Request Form

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We can arrange bulk discounts for your course enrolment, please get in touch with us to discuss your needs.

Yes, we have many students who are in locked facilities, such as prisons or hospitals. We can cater by also offering paper notes at an additional cost.


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Course Contributors

The following academics were involved in the development and/or updating of this course.

Jacinda Cole (Horticulturist)

B.Sc., Cert.Garden Design. Landscape Designer, Operations Manager, Consultant, Garden Writer.
She was operations manager for a highly reputable British Landscape firm (The Chelsea Gardener) before starting up her own landscaping firm. She spent three ye

John Mason (Horticulturist)

Parks Manager, Nurseryman, Landscape Designer, Garden Writer and Consultant.
Over 40 years experience; working in Victoria, Queensland and the UK.
He is one of the most widely published garden writers in the world.

Diana Cole

B.A. (Hons), Dip. Horticulture, BTEC Dip. Garden Design, Diploma Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development, PTLLS (Preparing to Teach in the Life Long Learning Sector), P.D.C.
In addition to the qualifications listed above, Diana holds City & Guild

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