UNDERSTANDING VIOLENCE IS THE FIRST STEP TOWARD DEALING WITH IT
CAUSES OF VIOLENCE
1) Cold Violence
This is more the domain of the police than the therapist. It is usually caused by the perception of a power imbalance e.g. “You’re wealthier than me and so I will take your money by threatening you with this knife”
2) Hot Violence
This is violence in response to some kind of psychological hurt usually to retaliate or spread the hurt around e.g. “You’re going to hurt because I do”. This could occur due to a life event where the individual believes that they have been wrongly done by. This can be influenced by drugs, alcohol, availability of a weapon, or factors such as the individual’s ability to verbalise problems, to empathise with potential victims, their impulse control, or their understanding of violence as a wrongful act.
3) Reactive Violence
This occurs due to situational factors. Typically it is borne of fear or frustration e.g. the room is too hot, there is too much noise in the waiting room, or they are worried about meeting someone new. Often this type of violence can be diffused by building rapport with the client and changing the unpleasant environmental factors.
It might be possible to diffuse goal-directed violence in cases where the violence has not become out of control e.g. stages 1 and 2 of the afore-mentioned hierarchy of violence. This might be achieved by providing explanations for situations or other people’s behaviour. If they cannot be pacified then they may have to be asked to leave or it may be necessary to bring in help.
Try to understand the Type of Person You are Dealing with.
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TIPS FOR DEALING WITH THE VIOLENT PERSON
(NB: You are always advised to seek professional help. tips given here cannot be a substitute for someone properly assessing the unique situation which you find yourself in)
1) Allow the Person to Talk
Try not to interrupt the client unless necessary. If you do interrupt then do so in a calm and gentle but assured manner.
2) Do Not Turn Your Back on the Person
Avoid direct eye contact but continue to observe the client. Do not walk in front of them and remain far enough away to be out of striking distance.
3) Keep the Escape Route Clear
Unless the violence is pre-meditated or goal-directed then usually the person themselves would rather escape the room than attack you. Therefore, if they have the means by which to easily escape i.e. sitting near an unobstructed doorway, then it will prevent them from feeling out of control or threatened by being stuck in a corner which may escalate their aggression levels.
However, others suggest that you might be closest to the room door for purpose of escape. Typically, this is the preferred option. The door may be left open or if it has an observation window then others can look in. The ideal solution is a room with two exits so that both you and they can each sit next to one.
4) Modify the Environment
In some situations, other environmental factors can be modified to reduce the likelihood of violent outbursts and the threat to safety. For instance, buzzers placed under the desks in an interview rooms and at reception can be used to discretely summon help. If other members of staff walk past the interview rooms so that they can be seen then this can also help diffuse potentially violent situations. Doors which lock from the outside can be used to detain a violent client as well as to ensure that helpers are not locked out. Using a verbal code can notify other members of staff to get help without alarming the violent individual.
Remove any unnecessary items from the room which can be picked up and thrown or used as weapons and remove clothing which could be used to cause injury e.g. scarves, ties, spectacles, necklaces, earrings, before interviewing a potentially violent client.
5) Maintain Observations
Note physiological changes in the person such as reddening of the face, clenching fists, grimaces, voice becoming louder, heavy breathing, narrowing of their gaze, and so forth.
6) Do Not Try To Be Brave
Safety is paramount at all times. Do not try to deal with a violent person by yourself when the violence has escalated – always seek help.
Do not attempt to disarm an armed person. If they claim to have a concealed weapon or you suspect they do – leave the room at once. If you cannot contain them in a room – inform others, and leave the building with them then call the police.