Learn to Manage Organisations, People, Things!
Capable and Effective Managers are always in short supply
If you know how to organise people and/or resources to be efficient and productive; you will never be short of opportunities.
Not everyone is suited to be a manager; but management skills will help you in any career.
Graduates may seek positions such as:
- Small Business Manager
- Regional Office or Branch Manager
- Marketing, Personnel or Production Manager
- Departmental manager or Section head within a larger organisation
- Self Employed Business Owner/Manager
Note that each module in the Certificate In Management is a short course in its own right, and may be studied separately.
How has Management Changed?
Priorities keep changing in the world of management.
In the early 20th century, the emphasis on industrial relations surged, and in the late 20th century the emphasis on quality control and environmental management grew.
Different individual managers and different organisations and companies will give different levels of emphasis to different components - some are holistic, others are more focused on profit, yet others are more concerned about the collective good of building community capacity. One manager will give a very high priority to care for their staff; while another cares far more for the business or their own profile and career progression within the business/organisation.
Theories on management and methods have changed through history, with different theorists emphasising a range of aspects of leaders in the field. Background knowledge of management theory assists managers in their work, approaches and perspectives. You can learn from the experiences of others and be flexible in incorporating a blend of your own ideas, and the ideas of management theorists in your management situation. Some of the leaders over time have included Fayol, Mayo and Hawthorne, Taylor, Webber, Tom Peters, Eminent psychologist Maslow, and Edward de Bono.
Early management theories in the late 1800’s espoused specifying and measuring all the organisational tasks and standardising them as much as possible - working also on a basic premise of rewarding and punishing workers. This set up worked well generally for production line and assembly work. Later methods by Webber involved setting up a strong hierarchy and line management of authority and control with standardised operating procedures and methods. Later humanist theories concentrated on the workers, looking at the strengths of individuals and their capabilities and focusing on behavioural theories. Discovering the needs of the workers and the needs of the company and endeavouring to match them was the aim. Theory X and Y arose in this system and the work of psychologist Maslow concentration on the five essential needs of every human in order for them to function to their optimum played and still plays an important role in many workplaces.
More recent theories include the Contingency theory, Systems theory and Chaos theory. Contingency theory is based on managers looking at all the aspects of the current situation and making a decision based on all those key aspects and developing a leadership style to suit the situation. The Systems theory looks at inputs, processes, outcomes and outputs - and how change in one affects the others and how they are inter meshed in the big picture goal or outcome success. The Chaos theory is concerned with complex and unpredictable results - changing one aspect will alter the others as they are all interrelated in systems that are sensitive to their initial conditions. Very small occurrences, changes, or points not considered can produce unpredictable sometimes drastic results, triggering a series of increasingly significant effects.
Management is an art that requires experience and knowledge. Trial and error - applying concepts and learning from it - is one of the best ways to develop management skills.
This course is made of up 6 modules: two core modules and 4 elective modules.
To obtain the Certificate in Management, you must successfully complete all assignments and pass an exam in each of six modules.
There are 6 lessons as follows:
- Introduction and Organizational Structures
- Management Theories & Procedures
- Problem Solving & Decision Making
- Management Styles & External Influences
- Employing People & Interview Skills
- Staff Management
Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.
On successful completion of the course you should be able to do the following:
- Explain the role of managers in an organization and the kinds of organizations in which they function.
- Identify the processes and procedures that are associated with the effective management of staff in the workplace.
- Describe the use of motivation in the workplace and the effects this can have on staff performance.
- Describe how to recruit and interview a new staff member for a specific job in an organisation.
- Discuss work group project preparation, costing, performance analysis and goal completion from a managerial perspective.
- Describe the principles of Occupational Health and Safety policies, and their application in your industry sector.
Project Management is an invaluable tool used in all industries, and in all sorts of situations. It is relevant to a diverse range of projects, including technical, human resources, marketing, and more.
This is a compressed version of a much longer course, so it is highly informative, and great value for money.
It was developed by highly qualified professionals, with years of experience in their respective fields.
There are nine lessons as follows:
- Introduction: Understanding what project management is, and what its applications might be.
- Project Identification: Identification and defining projects which need management.
- Project Planning: Developing a strategy and framework for the plan.
- Project Implementation: Managers duties during implementation, developing a Preparation Control Chart,
- Project Completion & Evaluation: Dangers in this stage, Steps in Project completion, Declaring a project sustainable, Developing an evaluation method.
- Technical Project Management Skills: Preparing a proposal, budget control/management, steps in drawing up a post project appraisal.
- Leadership Skills: Styles of leadership, leadership principles and methods.
- Improving Key Personnel Skills: Listening skills, Negotiation skills, Conflict management.
- Major Assignment: Developing full documentation for a project.
(Choose 4 from the list below)
This course contains eight lessons, as follows:
3. Tangible Rewards
4. Intangible Rewards
5. Negative Motivators
6. Initiating Motivation
7. Maintaining Motivation
There are 10 lessons as follows:
1. Introduction - Organisational structures & responsibilities.
2. Understanding the work place - Government and private personnel departments, unions.
3. Communications and human relations.
4. Motivating employees.
5. Organising the work place.
6. Problem solving techniques.
7. Discipline, complaints and grievances.
8. Interviewing, recruitment, training.
9. Work place safety.
10. Dealing with management/worker participation/ report writing/ staff meetings.
There are ten lessons in this course, as follows:
2. Understanding the Employees
3. Personality & Temperament
4. Psychological Testing
5. Management & Managers
6. The Work Environment
7. Motivation and Incentives
8. Recruitment Ways of seeking applicants
9. Social Considerations Group Behaviour
10. Abnormalities and Disorders Psychosis
There are eight lessons in this course, as follows:
1. Conflict Management and Anger
6. Balance of Power
7. Discussion and Group Work
8. Crisis Analysis and Responses
There are 13 lessons as follows:
2. Balance Sheet
3. Analysing and Designing Accounting Systems
4. The Double Entry Recording Process
5. Cash Receipts and Cash Payments Journal
6. Credit Fees and Purchases Journal
7. The General Journal
8. Closing the Ledger
9. Profit and Loss Statement
10. Depreciation on Non-current Assets
11. Profit Determination and Balance Day Adjustments
12. Cash Control: Bank Reconciliation and Petty Cash
13. Cash Control: Budgeting
There are 12 lessons as follows:
1. Trading firms and accounting rules
2. Physical Inventory System
3. Perpetual Inventory System
4. Inventory Valuation
5. Accounting for bad and doubtful debts
6. Classified Profit and Loss Statements for trading firms
7. Control Accounts
8. Budgeting for Trading Firms
9. Statement of Cash Flows
10. Alternatives in Accounting
11. Analysis and Interpretation of Accounting Reports
12. Business Expansions and Sources of Finance
There are 11 lessons as follows:
1. Introduction to Business Planning – The business plan, strategic and operational planning, feasibility studies, the executive summary.
2. Focus and Direction – Deciding on direction, visualising future business directions, vision and mission statements
3. Legal and Administrative Requirements – Legal structure of a business, business names, taxation, regulations, licenses and permits, types of business ownership
4. Developing Objectives and Strategies – Setting goals and objectives, SWOT and GAP analyses, strategies for achieving objectives
5. Planning for Growth – Planned as opposed to runaway growth, subcontracting, franchising, licensing, the growth plan
6. Risk Management and Contingencies – Approaches to risk management, identifying business risks
7. Systems – System components, the quality audit, benchmarking, business plans as a mechanism of control
8. Marketing Plans – The definition of marketing, marketing requirements, the marketing process, market research, implications of unplanned marketing
9. Operation Plans – Control of business operations, writing an operation plan
10. Human Resource Plans – The value of human resources, occupational health and safety, skills and competencies of different staff
11. Financial Plans – The importance of financial planning, establishment costs and start up capital, cash flow forecasts, profit and loss statements
GOOD MANAGERS LEARN TO SEE BEYOND JUST WHAT IS OBVIOUS
This course and our academic staff are all about helping you do just
this, and in doing so, we'll move you toward developing unique and very
practical managerial skills. You can't always depend upon just what you
hear or read. Consider "Non-Verbal Behaviour
Non-verbal behaviour is a form of communication we use without words. It may be that we nod or shake our head, how we use our eye brows, move our body and so on.
It is estimated that:
- 55% of what we communicate is through non-verbal communication
- 8% is through words or ideas
- 37% is through our voice
We don’t know exactly, but studies show that between 65% - 95% of a message can be shown non-verbally. There is little agreement on where the boundary between verbal and non-verbal communication can be drawn. This is especially so for non-word utterances such as clearing our throat.
Non-verbal behaviour can help us to develop a rapport with another person or it can have the opposite effect. Some examples -
- Matching a person’s non-verbal behaviour can show we are interested. But if the person adopts a defensive posture, such as folding their arms and crossing their legs, then you may wish to maintain a more open posture that signifies openness toward the person.
- Physical proximity (leaning forward towards one another represents involvement, whereas slouching back represents disinterest or boredom)
- Use of movement
- Facial expression
- Eye contact
- Physiological responses (e.g. crying, sweating, trembling, shaking)
As with other cultural factors, non-verbal communication can be interpreted by the recipient of the message. The interpretation and recognition of non-verbal messages can be subconscious and misleading in intercultural situations.
There are two main types of non-verbal communication: –
- Active behaviour – consciously controlled.
- Passive behaviour – unconsciously displayed.
Other categories of non-verbal communication include: -
Kinesics is nonverbal behaviour related to movement of part or the whole body. It is the most obvious form of nonverbal communication, but it can be the most confusing as it can have various meanings.
Kinesics can be subdivided into five categories: –
- Regulators These are non-verbal signs that regulate and maintain the flow of speech in a conversation, such as nodding your head, eye movements and so on. They give feedback that the person has understood a message, but may be confusing.
- Emblems Nonverbal messages that have a verbal counterpart. For example, in Britain putting the forefinger and middle finger erect can mean victory if your hand is one way round, or an insult if the hand is another way round. In America, it may just mean the number 2. In Australia, it may be seen as insulting.
- Adapters These include posture changes, movements at a low level of awareness to make us feel more comfortable.
- Illustrators These are less linked to specific words, but consciously illustrate what is being said. For example, holding your hands wide apart shows that something is big. However, use of illustrators depends on cultures. Some cultures will use more illustrators than others.
- Affective Displays These are body or facial movements that display a certain emotion. For example, showing anger. They can be subconscious, so this can be bewildering across different cultures.
Oculesics – This is the way the eyes are used during communication. This can be maintaining or avoiding eye contact. Oculesic movements are also associated with kinesic movements. For example, raising your eyebrow when looking at another person. Use of oculesics will again depend on culture. Lowering a gaze in some cultures may convey respect, but in others may be insulting. Length of eye contact is also different across cultures. In some cultures extended eye contact may be thought rude.
Haptics is touching behaviour. Touching can occur in different circumstances during a conversation. Some cultures touch a lot, whilst in other cultures, it may make people feel uncomfortable. Haptics can be hostile (hitting, kicking) or show the degree of intimacy. Such as whether a relationship is professional, polite, warm, loving or sexual. In a counselling situation, it will be important for the person to maintain a physical distance to avoid any misunderstandings in relation to physical contact.
Proxemics is our personal space and how it is structured. Personal space is the distance away from other persons and is a powerful non-verbal tool. The further an angry person is away from us, the less threatening we may perceive them to be, for example. If an angry person gets closer, the expression of anger may seem more threatening.
Use of Voice - When we speak it is not just what we say that conveys a message, but also how we say it.
When seeking to create an empathic relationship it is important to bear in mind the effects of:
- Tone of voice (this can convey happiness, sadness, anxiety and so on)
- Clarity and volume (people may speak less clearly and more quietly about issues of concern, and loudly when expressing anger and so on)
- Speed (some people may rush through topics that are distressing to them or if they are nervous, which they may be in a job interview)
- Word spacing, pauses and emphases also offer valuable clues as to what is of importance to the person.
- It is perhaps most important in the creation of an empathic relationship to try to match the response of the client. That is, if the person talks fast, the interviewer talks slightly faster. Going against the person may only serve to upset them and make them feel that you are against them, rather than on their side. By doing this you can eventually dictate the pace by convincing the person that you are there for them.
AFTER YOU FINISH THIS COURSE
As a graduate, you will have an enhanced perspective on management. Learning to be a manager the way we teach it, is far more than just absorbing and remembering a collection of factual information.
We believe that good managers need to be connected to the real world, observing, noticing and reacting to the constant changes that are happening all around. We have developed this course to develop good habits with respect to management, to foster an ability to look ahead and think outside of the box always seeing possibilities in front of you and having contingency plans in mind before you need to act.
Graduates will have knowledge and tools to better foresee decisions that need to be made, well before crunch time requires action to be taken.
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