Counselling Techniques

Course CodeBPS206
Fee CodeS3
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

DISTANCE LEARNING COURSE - COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES

An in depth study of counselling techniques

Duration: 100 Hours (you study at your own pace).

COURSE STRUCTURE 

The course is divided into eight lessons as follows:

1. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy l: Freud (& Erikson); Jung

2. Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy ll: Adler

3. Humanistic/Existential Approaches I: Gestalt Therapy; Fritz Perls

4. Humanistic/Existential Approaches II: Person-Centred Counselling; Carl Rogers

5. Rational Behavioural Therapy: Albert Ellis

6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: Aaron Beck

7. Behavioural Therapy:

8. Solution-Focused Counselling:

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Examples of what you may do in this course

· Explain the concept of dream analysis.

· Differentiate between elements of traditional psychoanalytical theory in terms of its usefulness in modern day counselling.

· Describe the modification to traditional psychoanalytical theory as prescribed by Erikson.

· Explain an object-relations interpretation of the origin of ‘narcissistic’ and ‘borderline’ personality disorders.

· Explain the difference between Freudian and Adlerian theory.

· Define the key concepts of Adlerian theory including: personality, goals and lifestyle.

· Explain the concept of superiority v inferiority.

· Describe the 4 stages of the Adlerian counselling process, i.e: -developing the counselling relationship; -exploring the individual; -encouraging self-awareness; -re-education.

· Discuss the pros and cons of Adlerian therapy as applied to the counselling process.

· Define Gestalt therapy.

· Explain the importance of elements of human nature to the Gestalt approach.

· Discuss ways in which dilemmas can be resolved using the Gestalt approach.

· Explain the ‘effect of contact’ and the ‘effect of energy’.

· Discuss the use of confrontation.

· Describe different techniques of Gestalt therapy.

· Discuss the pros and cons of Gestalt therapy as applied to the counselling process.

· Define person-centred counselling.

· Outline the principles of the person-centred approach.

· Discuss how the impact of the counselling process is assessed.

· Discuss suitable areas of application.

· Discuss the pros and cons of the person-centred approach as applied to the counselling process.

· Define REBT.

· Explain Ellis’ views on ‘human nature’.

· Describe Ellis’ theory of personality.

· Discuss the stages involved in developing a rational philosophy of life.

· Describe different techniques used in REBT.

· Discuss the pros and cons of REBT as applied to the counselling process.

· Discuss the differences between CBT and REBT.

· Outline the main ‘cognitive distortions’ as set out in CBT.

· Discuss the goals of CBT.

· Describe modifications to CBT (known as CBM).

· Outline the 3 phases involved in CBT.

· Discuss the pros and cons of CBT as applied to the counselling process.

· Define the main characteristics of behavioural therapy.

· Describe different techniques of behavioural therapy including: -relaxation training; -systematic desensitisation; -exposure therapies; -assertion training.

· Discuss the pros and cons of behavioural therapy as applied to the counselling process.

· Define solution-focused counselling.

· Describe how to engage the client.

· Describe how questions are used to construct pathways for change.

· Discuss strategies used to generate creative solutions.

· Discuss the pros and cons of solution-focused therapy to the counselling process.

Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) developed the most comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy to date. His basic principles have been used as the building blocks for many subsequent theories, and continue to be used. Other theories have emerged as a reaction against psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis has been thought to be difficult to prove and based on limited case studies.

Freud drew attention to the unconscious and its role in personality development. His theory of personality development is deterministic, emphasising the role of irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and drives on the individual’s psyche as they progress through psychosexual phases during the first 5 – 6 years of life.

Freud considered instincts to be central to personality development. He referred to libido (sex drive) to be the survival instinct. He later renamed it the ‘life instincts’, to illustrate the fact that he believed motivation went beyond sexual energy.

Contrarily, he believed that aggression was the primary death instinct.

Which theories have had a lasting affect on modern counselling and psychotherapy? Which techniques are best suited to different kinds of counseling situations?

Sample Course Notes -

Goals of the Psychoanalytical Approach

Psychoanalysis seeks to make the unconscious conscious. It strives to probe into the deeper part of the psyche and get to those issues that were not resolved during cognitive development. It does not aim simply to uncover these issues, but rather to understand and experience them so that a change in character can occur.

The therapist will typically not engage in much self-disclosure and will therefore consider that most of what the client discloses will be related to significant others from the past.

The relationship relies on transference and the client making projections onto the counsellor.

They also seek to enable the client to deal with impulsive and irrational behaviour and to cope with anxiety, thus leading to a greater sense of self-awareness and hopefully more successful relationships.

The therapist also tunes in to the client’s resistances and interprets dreams and free-associations to get an overall picture of what the client’s problems may be. It is hoped that increasing the client’s awareness will encourage them to change, though it is up to the client to want to change. The therapist’s interpretation can therefore be seen as being not as important as the client’s willingness to change.

Typically this form of therapy will last between 3 and 5 years, and the client will see the therapist several times a week. It is important that the therapist does not rush to interpret the information supplied by the client.

Transference is the key in the relationship between the therapist and the client. During the relationship the client uses transference to project their feelings and emotions toward significant others from their past onto the therapist. The therapist therefore acts as a replacement for these significant others and their client may project a whole range of feelings onto the therapist ranging from love to hate.

In order for the client to change they need to work through the unconscious material and defences that come to light during the therapy. In order for the client to achieve independence they need to free themselves from motivations that arose in their childhood.

Even during long-term therapy, not all childhood needs and traumas will be eradicated.

Counter-transference also occurs whereby the therapist becomes aware of their own unresolved conflicts. It also occurs when a therapist’s reactions within the relationship interferes with the therapeutic process, disrupting the therapist’s objectivity. Counter-transference can be incorporated into the process and be used as another means of helping the client.

Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy l - Freud, Erikson, Jung
    • Value and relevance of psychotherapy
    • Emergence of psychoanalytical theory
    • Principles of psychoanalytical theory
    • Elements of the personality
    • The notion of conscious and unconscious
    • Anxiety and psychoanalysis
    • Inbuilt psychological coping and damage repair mechanisms
    • Defense mechanisms
    • Freuds psychosexual theory and Eriksons psychosocial theory
    • Jung's perspective on personality
    • Archetypes
    • Recent developments in psychoanalytical theory
    • Goals of psychoanalytical approach
    • Psychoanalytic techniques
    • Analytic framework
    • Free associations
    • Interpretation
    • Dream analysis
    • Resistance
    • Transference
    • Psychoanalytic approach and counselling
    • Personality disorders
    • Critique for psychoanalytic theory
  2. Psychoanalytical psychotherapy ll - Adler
    • Alfred Adler
    • Adler's key concepts
    • Inferiority vs superiority
    • What makes people self interested
    • Social interest and community feeling
    • Individual psychology
    • Psychological types: ruling type, leaning type, avoiding type
    • Sibling relationships
    • Only child
    • First child, second child, youngest child
    • Use of adlerian theory
    • Applications to counselling
    • Freud and Adler
    • Critique
  3. Humanistic/Existential approaches I - Gestalt Therapy; Fritz Perls
    • Introduction
    • Human nature
    • Holistic approach
    • Field theory
    • Figure-formation process
    • Organismic self regulation
    • Focus on the present
    • Resolving dilemmas
    • Personal maturity
    • The effect of contact
    • Effect of energy
    • The experiment
    • Confrontation
    • Gestalt techniques: Internal dialogue, reversal, rehersal, exaggeration, dream work, etc
    • Critique
  4. Humanistic/Existential approaches II - Person-Centred Counselling; Carl Rogers
    • Humanistic therapy
    • Principles of person centred approach
    • Personal attitude of the counsellor
    • Goals of therapt
    • Assessment techniques
    • Areas of application
    • Critique
  5. Rational behavioural therapy - Albert Ellis
    • Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT
    • Ellis's view of human nature
    • Personality theory
    • Goals and techniques of therapy
    • Therapeutic techniques
    • Cognitive techniques
    • Emotive techniques
    • Use of REBT
    • Critique
  6. Cognitive behavioural therapy - Aaron Beck
    • Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and REBT
    • Premises of CBT
    • Cognitive distortions
    • Use of cognitive therapy
    • Family therapy
    • Modifications to CBT
    • Stress innoculation training program (SIT)
    • Stages of SIT
    • Constructivist modification
  7. Behavioural therapy
    • Contempory behavioural therapy
    • Behavioural approach
    • Goals ant techniques
    • Goals of therapy
    • Use of behaviour therapy
    • Basic ID
    • Critique
  8. Solution-focused counselling
    • Introduction
    • Strategies in solution focussed counselling
    • Engaging the client
    • Constructing pathways for change
    • Generating creative solutions
    • Critique

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

What You Will Do

  • Explain the principal differences between Adlerian and Freudian theory, the key concepts of Adlerian theory, and the 4 stages of the Adlerian counselling process.
  • Understand the chief elements of the Gestalt approach, to discuss resolution of problems and to describe different effects and techniques of Gestalt therapy.
  • Delineate the person-centred approach to counselling; to understand its principles, goals, assessment techniques and appropriate application.
  • Explain Albert Ellis’s views and the evolution of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), the stages involved in developing a rational philosophy of life, and the different techniques used by REBT’s.
  • Discuss the differences between Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and REBT, to define the main ‘cognitive distortions’, and to demonstrate an awareness of modifications to CBT
  • Develop an appreciation of the characteristics of contemporary behavioural therapy and different problem-solving techniques adopted by behavioural therapists.
  • Explain the role of solution-focused counselling in modern therapy and the strategies used to generate solutions.
  • Explain the concept of dream analysis.
  • Describe Erikson's modification to traditional psychoanalytical theory .
  • Explain an object-relations interpretation of the origin of ‘narcissistic’ and ‘borderline’ personality disorders.
  • Explain the difference between Freudian and Adlerian theory.
  • Define the key concepts of Adlerian theory including: personality, goals and lifestyle.
  • Explain the concept of superiority v inferiority.
  • Describe the 4 stages of the Adlerian counselling process, i.e: -developing the counselling relationship; -exploring the individual; -encouraging self-awareness; -re-education.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of Adlerian therapy as applied to the counselling process.
  • Define Gestalt therapy.
  • Explain the importance of elements of human nature to the Gestalt approach.
  • Discuss ways in which dilemmas can be resolved using the Gestalt approach.
  • Explain the ‘effect of contact’ and the ‘effect of energy’.
  • Discuss the use of confrontation.
  • Describe different techniques of Gestalt therapy.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of Gestalt therapy as applied to the counselling process.
  • Define person-centred counselling.
  • Outline the principles of the person-centred approach.
  • Discuss how the impact of the counselling process is assessed.
  • Discuss suitable areas of application.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of the person-centred approach as applied to the counselling process.
  • Define REBT.
  • Explain Ellis’ views on ‘human nature’.
  • Describe Ellis’ theory of personality.
  • Discuss the stages involved in developing a rational philosophy of life.
  • Describe different techniques used by REBT’s.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of REBT as applied to the counselling process.
  • Discuss the differences between CBT and REBT.
  • Outline the main ‘cognitive distortions’ as set out in CBT.
  • Discuss the goals of CBT.
  • Describe modifications to CBT (known as CBM).
  • Outline the 3 phases involved in CBT.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of CBT as applied to the counselling process.
  • Define the main characteristics of behavioural therapy.
  • Describe different techniques of behavioural therapy including: -relaxation training; -systematic desensitisation; -exposure therapies; -assertion training.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of behavioural therapy as applied to the counselling process.
  • Define solution-focused counselling.
  • Describe how to engage the client.
  • Describe how questions are used to construct pathways for change.
  • Discuss strategies used to generate creative solutions.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of solution-focused therapy to the counselling process.
  Miriam ter Borg

Psychologist, Youth Worker, Teacher, Author and Natural Therapist. Miriam was previously an Outdoor Pursuits Instructor, Youth Worker, Surfing College Program Coordinator, Massage Therapist, Business Owner/Manager. Miriam's qualifications include B.Sc.(Psych), DipRem.Massage, Cert Ourdoor Rec.
  Tracey Jones

B.Sc. (Psych), M.Soc.Sc., Dip.Sicial Work, P.G.Dip Learning Disability, Cert Editing, Cert Creative Writing, PGCE. Member British Psychological Society, Member Assoc. for Coaching, Member British Learning Assoc. 25 years industry experience in writing, editing, education, psychology, and business. Tracey has several books and hundreds of articles published; in both fiction and non fiction.
  Lyn Quirk

M.Prof.Ed.; Adv.Dip.Compl.Med (Naturopathy); Adv.Dip.Sports Therapy Over 30 years as Health Club Manager, Fitness Professional, Teacher, Coach and Business manager in health, fitness and leisure industries. As business owner and former department head for TAFE, she brings a wealth of skills and experience to her role as a tutor for ACS.
  Gavin Cole

Psychologist, Educator, Author, Psychotherapist. B.Sc., Psych.Cert., M. Psych. Cert.Garden Design, MACA Gavin has over 25 years of experience in psychology, in both Australia and England. He has co-authored several psychology text books and many courses including diploma and degree level courses in psychology and counselling. Gavin has worked for ACS for over 10 years.
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