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Knowing How to Manage Water is a High Demand Skill!
- Learn to manage water quality
- Learn to manage water use
- Learn to create and implement a water management plan, for home, or work
- Reduce your environmental footprint, save money, improve quality of life
- Advance your career or business opportunities for working in
water supply, water services, environmental, agricultural or
Water is the most important resource to
sustain life. All living organisms need water to survive. This course
will teach you how to conserve this precious resource in various
situations from the home environment to industry. Lesson cover water
conservation at home, in the workplace, water management, conservation
in primary production, health, recycling and more.
There are 10 lessons in this course:
Introduction to water conservation
Importance of water
The water cycle rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, effective rainfall
Water sources and storage water quality
Facts on water uses water use at home, in primary and other industries
Why conserve water personal, regional and global significance
Water conservation at home
In the United Kingdom
In the United States
Measures undertaken to save water in the home in the kitchen, bathroom and in the garden.
Water Saving Devices
Water conservation in the workplace
Implementing water saving strategies
Installing small appliances
Large water saving devices
Water quality maintaining water quality, salinity, chemical contaminants
Controlling Use and Quality of Water water flow measurement, water quality control, testing water salinity
Preserving Water Quality minimising evaporation, water sanitation
Water Management Plans
Water conservation in Primary Production I
Water Saving Measures
Water Wise Plants
Water Wise Procedures
Water Wise Irrigation systems
Water Wise Landscaping
Equipment, structures and tools to save water
Water conservation in Primary Production II
Use of water in primary production
Methods of water storage
Rainwater collection and storage
Farm dams planning, lined ponds
Water Requirements livestock requirements, domestic requirements
Water Problems on Farms contamination and disposal of water, evaporation, seepage, runoff, overspray, scheduling
Using Farm Waste Water
Irrigation System Design
Maintenance Procedures and Scheduling
Swales and Keylines
Water conservation in Services industries
Use of Water in Services Industry
Contamination and Disposal of Water
Water conservation and Health
Hospitals, nursing homes, laundries, clinical laboratories, dental practices, human and animal research facilities
Uses of water in Health Industry control pathogens, general use
Water conservation in other sectors
Use of water in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry
Water use in the production process
Examples of water using activities in food facilities
Benefits of cleaner production
Water treatment, reuse and recycling
Water Sanitation filtering and disinfection
Water Reuse and Recycling classification and composition of waste water.
Treating saline water
Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.
Explain the importance of water in the world and the reasons for its sustainable conservation and management.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water at the workplace.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water at home.
Explain water flow and quality control.
Explain water audits and water management plans.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water in Horticulture
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water in Agriculture.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water in the Services Industry.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water in the Health Industry and allied services.
Explain the importance of water conservation and methods to save water in other occupations.
Explain water sanitation and wastewater treatment methods and the difference with water reuse and recycling.
WHY TO CONSERVE WATER?
Human beings cannot survive more than 3
days without any source of water. Neither can other animals or plants.
Water is life. Water is needed to move, eat, reproduce, work and think,
in other words, to survive and to live.
Water resources are challenged in our
world today due to pollution and overuse of the local resources. There
are also fights for water between different users: farmers, people in
cities and industries. There also rivers that cross frontiers, and thus
there some problems in the sharing and use of the water between
different countries. We are using much more water than what is really
needed and available in many locations around the world.
This is due sometimes because of lack of
water, but more often it is due to a bad management of the water
resources available, bad or non existent urban planning and bad or non
existent population planning.
We are also wasting our water resources
when we are discharging our wastes and sewage into it, making the
receiving waters unsuitable for life and in many cases even unsuitable
for industrial or agricultural use.
These are the main reasons to preserve
our water resources. There are many ways to do so. Water conservation
needs to be addressed through the three environmental R’s:
1. Reduce water use and water losses.
This is also called water saving or minimization. Cleaner Production is a
term used to describe all the actions taken to minimize the use of
resources, water, energy or materials, that are used in our daily life
(at home) and in our productive activities, such as industries, crops,
health industries, office work (yes, water is also used, even
Water reduction is the first step in
water conservation as it is the most important factor in using water
more efficiently. We reduce our water use at home when we use “water
savers” in the shower. In gardening we save water when we use drip
irrigation, instead of surface watering.
2. Reuse: Once water use has been
reduced, we can study how we can use water that has already been used
once. This is done normally with water that is not heavily contaminated
with wastes. We can reuse shower water, but not water used to flush the
We are reusing water at home when we are
using our grey water (from washing) to water the garden. Some
industries can reuse water so effectively that they don’t produce any
waste water. There are nowadays very efficient technologies to that
3. Recycle. This is the third step, and
generally it includes some type or technology the clean the water and
use these recovered water. In rural houses, water from flushing the
toilets can be cleaned with several simple and affordable technologies.
This water can then be used to water trees. In Israel, in very dry areas
with great shortage of water, sewage water is cleaned and disinfected
so well, that it is being used to supply part of the drinking water. It
is an expensive technology, but it can be done if there is no another
solution to provide water to the population.
Maintaining Water Quality
Water quality is affected by the type and amount of impurities:
- Physical contamination are particles in the water, like silt due to erosion
- Chemical impurities are substances dissolved in the water, like salt, fertilizers, oils, pesticides and other chemical residues
- Biological impurities are living
organisms such as algae and some micro-organisms. Bacteriological
contamination is biological and it is extremely important to human and
Rain or creek water is unlikely to have
serious physical or chemical impurities, like high levels of
fertilizers, pesticides or oils, but may develop algal problems,
particularly if exposed to light and if nutrient levels (normally due to
chemical contamination with fertilizers in the creek basin) are high.
Bacterial impurities may develop if this water is stored improperly or
contaminated with grazing animal’s droppings and urine.
Bore or spring water hardly ever has
physical or algal impurities, but may contain salts (causing hardness).
Bore water may also contain iron, and in agricultural areas can have
nutrients and pesticides. Bore water near industrial areas or cities may
have chemical contaminants like oils and its residues and other
chemical contaminants that will depend on the industries nearby.
River or channel water is likely to have
biological impurities (eg. algae) as a result of fertilizer
contamination and may have chemical and physical contamination,
depending on the source. If the river comes from a contaminated water
basin (the geographical area where rain water falls and gathers in a
sole river), water may contain chemicals. This may happen when there are
industries or mining activities upstream.
Dam and irrigation water generally
contains few chemical or biological impurities if properly managed, but
may have sediment or other physical impurities and may develop medium
levels of bacteria and nutrients, particularly if animals are allowed to
foul the water. If the water is rich in nutrients due to agricultural
runoff, then algal blooms are likely to develop (eutrophication).
The quality of water may be found by testing a sample. This is normally carried out by such organisations as:
- Environmental laboratories, university laboratories or university scientific services
- Companies that sell equipment for the treatment of water
- Local organisations such as dairy factories and water treatment trusts
- Departments of Agriculture, Primary Industries or similar bodies
- Departments of Mines or similar bodies
- Departments of Health
- Water supply authorities
Before collecting water for testing you
should contact the testing organisation you have selected for advice on
how the sample should be gathered.
A major concern with water quality is the level of salinity. Salinity in
irrigation areas in many dry land countries, including large tracts of
inland Australia, Southern Europe, and tropical soils in Asia and
Africa, has been the cause of severe environmental and economic
As salinity levels rise in an area, the
productivity potential falls. Salt-affected soils suffer from surface
crusting, reduced infiltration and restricted subsoil drainage. Crops
and pastures exposed to saline irrigation water experience water stress,
resulting in leaf scorching, leaf fall, and slow growth and reduced
yields. In extreme cases, vegetation die back occurs and the soil is
left exposed to erosion.
Chemical contamination may come from the use of synthetic fertilizers in
crops, used to increase productivity and from the use of herbicides and
pesticides also in crops. High levels of nitrates in the water can also
be due to excessive manure application to crop soils, especially from
pig manure which is very high in ammonia. Nitrates are especially
dangerous if drank in tap water by babies younger that 4 months, as
nitrates compete with oxygen in the blood, being bound to red blood
cells and transported by blood more effectively than oxygen, thus
provoking asphyxia symptoms. The condition is called “blue babies
syndrome”, and can be lethal.
Contamination with oils, pesticides and chemical residues occurs also in
areas occupied by industries, petrol stations and other transport
related areas and in any activity where there is machinery to be
maintained or chemicals used, including pharmaceutical, toiletries,
hospitals and laboratories. Textiles, printing, leather dyeing also use
big amounts of chemicals (dyes and inks), and even water and drinks
companies have a machinery maintenance section where they use oils and
All this contamination can be prevented with the right behaviour and adequate Pollution Prevention actions.
Other types of contamination are
metals due to natural causes (high levels in the soil) or due to mining
activities, biological contamination (algae, bacteria, viruses) caused
by human or animal contamination of water, or by eutrophication due to
excessive fertilizers in the soils in the water basin.
EXPLORE YOUR OPTIONS
Take advantage of the free Counselling Service we offer.