Anatomy II (Human)

Course CodeBSC112
Fee CodeS4
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

Online Course in Anatomy

  • Study advanced anatomy.
  • Lay a foundation for further studies in either Health Science or Fitness and Exercise Science
  • Work in Health, Fitness, Sport or Medical Industries

This is a course developed for people wishing to develop a career in health and human sciences, paramedical jobs and alternative therapists, specially massage therapists and other health care professions working in close contact with the patients body.

The course can be used as a credit toward higher qualifications with this school or one of our affiliated colleges across the world

Lesson Structure

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Cytology
    • Common Organelles & Structures such as Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosomes, Lysosome and Peroxisome
    • Specialised Organelles & Structures - Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, T-Tubules, Undulipodia and Microvilli
    • The Anatomy of Cellular Division - Review, Characteristic Interphase Structures, Characteristic Mitosis Structures
  2. Surface Anatomy
    • Anatomy
    • Terminology - Regions and Positions of the Body, Planes and Views of the Body, Locational and Directional Terminology, Descriptive Terms, Numerical Terms
    • Surface Anatomy
    • Superficial Structures, Features and Markings - the Head, the Neck, the Back, the Anterior Torso, the Upper Extremities and the Lower Extremities.
    • Practical Use of Surface Anatomy - Inspection, Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion, Measuring Vital Signs, Blood Testing and Signs versus Symptoms
  3. Systemic Anatomy I
    • Systemic Anatomy - Integumentary, Nervous, Endocrine, Immune etc.
    • Organisation of the Body
    • The integumentary System - Anatomy of the Skin and Anatomy of other Integumentary System Components
    • The Nervous System - the Brain, the Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, Divisions of the Nervous System
    • The Cardiovascular System - the Heart and the Vasculature
    • The Renal System - the Kidneys, the Ureters, the Bladder and the Urethra.
  4. Systemic Anatomy II
    • The Endocrine System - the Pineal Gland, the Pituitary Gland, the Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Parathyroids, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal Glands and Ovaries and Testes.
    • The Immune System - Thymus, Spleen, Bone Marrow and Lymphatic System
    • The Male Reproductive System - External Components and Spermatogenesis in the Seminiferous Tubules of the Testes.
    • The Female Reproductive System - the Uterus, the Vagina, the External Genitalia, the Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes, Accessory Glands and the Breast and Mammary Tissue.
  5. Regional Anatomy I
    • Regional Anatomy - Integument, Peripheral Nervous System, Vasculature, Skeleton, Musculature
    • Musculature - Brevi, Extensor, Indicis, Longus, Palmar etc.
    • Bone - Girdle, Notch, Spine, Tuberosity etc.
    • Vasculature and Miscellaneous - Axilla, Cubital, Palpate etc.
    • The Cranial Cavity - Bones of the Skull and Facial Bones
    • Thoracic Cavity - the Oral and Nasal Cavities, the Paranasal Sinuses, the Nasopharynx, the Oropharynx, the Laryngopharynx, the Larynx, Laryngeal Membranes, Ligaments and Muscles, the Trachea, the Bronchial Tree, the Lungs and the Diaphragm
    • The Abdominopelvic Cavity - the Oesophagus, the Stomach, the Small Intestine and the Large Intestine.
  6. Regional Anatomy II
    • The Upper Extremities - Anatomical features of - the Humerus, the Ulna, the Radius, the Carpals, the Metacarpals, the Phalanges; Musculature of the Upper Extremities, Innervation of the Upper Extremity, Vasculature of the Upper Extremity.
    • The Lower Extremities - Anatomical Features of - the Pelvis, the Femur, the Tibia, the Fibula, the Tarsals, the Metatarsals, the Phalanges, Innervation of the Upper Extremity and Vasculature of the Lower Extremities.
  7. Radiographic and Diagnostic Anatomy
    • Medical Imaging - X-Ray, CAT scan, MRI, PET Scan and Ultrasound
    • Diagnostic Anatomy - Abdominopelvic Cavity, Abdominopelvic Quadrants.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

  • Describe and understand the microscopic anatomical features of human cells
  • Review basic structure and form markings of the body and be able to name them.
  • Describe the significant systems and the structure of those systems of the body.
    • Integumentary, Nervous, Cardiovascular and Renal Systems.
  • Describe the significant systems and the structure of those systems of the body.
    • Endocrine, Immune and Reproductive Systems.
  • Describe the significant structures in specific compartments or parts of the body - body cavities.
  • Investigate the anatomy of the extremities - the arms and legs. This includes the bone, musculature and nervous tissue of the regions.
  • Describe the study of the structure of the body and the application of various forms of medical imaging.

What You Will Do

  • Describe the importance of the following structures of the eye: eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows.
  • What structures form the oral cavity? Briefly describe their importance.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, outline and describe otitis media and its causes.
  • Besides the eyes, ear, and mouth - what other structures can be studied without a microscope ? List at least ten.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, describe the three basic functions of the nervous system that are necessary to maintain homeostasis.
  • Using reference materials or the internet, distinguish between grey and white matter and describe where they are found and their differences.
  • Using the internet or other reference material define the following: resting membrane potential, depolarization, repolarization, polarized membrane, nerve impulse, depolarized membrane, repolarized membrane, and refractory period.
  • List and describe the structure of the four principle parts of the brain.
  • Compare and contrast neurons and neuroglia, describing both structure and function
  • List the names and locations of the principal body cavities and their major organs.
  • List the names and locations of the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.
  • In which quadrant would you feel the pain from appendicitis? From an inflamed liver or gallbladder problems? Problems with the sigmoid colon? Problems with the spleen?
  • Using the internet or other reference materials find a sample image of the listed medical imaging techniques.

The study of the human body can be divided into specific fields, one of which is anatomy.  Anatomy is the study of structure, how parts of the body are sized and shaped and how they interact with each other, as well as the tissues that form them.  It does not consider how parts of the body function; what they do, this is the field of physiology.

 

Anatomy is and was the starting point of scientific investigation of the human body.  Without an understanding of structure we cannot fully understand function, for it is the structure and interrelation of body parts that permits their function.  In order to study anatomy, it is important to understand the different medical/scientific terms that are used to indicate location, relationship, components, numbers and so on.  Key terms are listed in the following tables, some will be familiar, but should be reviewed along with new terms, to ensure you are able to fully understand this course. 

 

Extract from Course Notes

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is a composed of a set of discrete organs that are connected by the blood stream. The organs include:

  • Pineal Gland
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary              
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroids
  • Thymus
  • Adrenals         
  • Pancreas
  • Ovaries
  • Testes

The Pineal Gland

A tiny gland located in the middle of the brain, inferior to the corpus callosum and intermediate to the two thalamic bodies. It is roughly oval in shape and measures about 8mm across. It is composed of both endocrine cells (pinealocytes) that produce the pigment melatonin and neurons.

 

The Pituitary Gland

A small gland located in the base of the brain, inferior and anterior to the pineal gland and immediately superior to the pons. It is level with the bridge of the nose. It sits in a cavity of sphenoid bone called the sella turcica, and is overlain by a layer of the dura mater, known as the sella diaphragm.

The gland itself is suspended by the pituitary or infundibular stalk (also known as the infundibulum) which runs superiorly to the hypothalamus. The pituitary has two lobes, anterior and posterior. The anterior lobe, also known as the adenohypophysis has three anatomic regions:

 

Pars tuberalis       The most superior portion, wraps around the infundibular stalk.

Pars intermedia         Intermidate between the pars distalis and the posterior lobe, forms a narrow band.


Pars distalis         The outermost and largest region of the lobe.

The anterior lobe is the main endocrine portion of the pituitary gland. It secretes an array of hormones under the control of the hypothalamus. Neurons run between the hypothalamus and the pituitary via the infundibular stalk.

The posterior lobe is made up of nervous tissue, but is still considered part of the endocrine system. This is because the nerves secrete peptide hormones. It is also known as the neurohypophysis. It can be divided into anatomical regions, like the anterior lobe:

 

Pars nervosa         Forms the remainder of the pituitary. Contain pituitocytes that are supporting cells for the nerve tissue of the pituitary. Also contain nerve endings that store hormones known as Herring bodies.

Infundibular stalk         The stalk from which the pituitary is suspended, contains the neurological tract that connects the pituitary and the hypothalamus.

The Hypothalamus

This is the primary control gland in the endocrine system. It also forms the connection between the endocrine and nervous systems. It is located superior to the pituitary gland and brain stem and inferior to the thalamus. It can be divided into a range of regions of nuclei, as described in the previous lesson. Neurons monitor hormone levels in the blood and also secrete a number of different hormones.
 
 
 
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