Animal Feed & Nutrition (Animal Husbandry III)

Course CodeBAG202
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

What do Animals Eat?

Learn to manage food and nutrition for pets, farm animals or wildlife in zoos. This course introduces animal foods, food components, evaluating food and digestibility for animals, classifying foods and calculating rations.

Comment from a student in this course:
“I think it is absolutely brilliant. I have never come across such a friendly, helpful staff and am so enjoying my course. I will definitely recommend ACS to anybody who wants to study over the net.”  
T. Sadler

Lesson Structure

There are 10 lessons in this course:

  1. INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FOODS
    • Terms and Definitions
    • Groups of Foods
    • Other Terms That Are Used
    • Food Processing Terms
    • Water
  2. FOOD COMPONENTS - CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS
    • Carbohydrates
    • Carbohydrates as a Source Of Energy
    • Fats and Oils
    • Adipose Tissue Deposits in Animals
    • Fat Deposits in Different Animals
  3. FOOD COMPONENTS - PROTEINS, MINERALS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS
    • Composition of Proteins
    • The Build Up Of Proteins
    • Biological Value of Protein
    • Protein Content of Foods
    • The Function of Protein
    • Feeding Urea to Ruminants
    • Major Minerals
    • Trace Elements
    • Vitamins
  4. EVALUATING FOODS AND DIGESTIBILITY
    • Analysis of Feed Stuffs
    • Calculating Digestibility
    • Protein Value
    • Energy Value
    • Nutrient Value of Some Common Foods
  5. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART A
    • Cereals and Cereal By-Products
    • Brewing By-Products
    • Grasses, Legumes and Succulents
    • Lucerne
    • Sainfoin
    • Other Succulent Foods
    • Roughage, Hay, Silage and Dried Grass
  6. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART B
    • Oil and Legume Seeds
    • Oil Seeds and Their Products
    • Legume Seeds
  7. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART C
    • Fodder Trees and Animal Products
    • Fodder Trees and Shrubs
    • Animal Products
  8. CALCULATING RATIONS PART A
    • The Object of Rationing
    • Nutritional Requirements of the Animal
    • Calculating a Maintenance Ration
    • Cattle at Pasture
    • Working Out Rations for a Herd
  9. CALCULATING RATIONS PART B
    • Nutrient Requirements for a Dairy Cow
    • Working Out the Total Requirements
    • Feeding a Ration to Meet Nutrient Needs
    • The Dairy Ration
  10. CALCULATING RATIONS PART C
    • Ready Mix Feeds
    • Using Protein Contents
    • A Summary of Rationing
    • Further Considerations in Rationing

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

  • Describe the range of livestock feeds and feeding methods available for animal production, using accepted industry terminology.
  • Explain the role of energy foods, including the sources and functions of those foods, in animal diets.
  • Explain the function of the major nutritional groups, including proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements in animal diets.
  • Explain the on-farm methods used to evaluate feeding, including selection of feeds and feed digestibility.
  • Evaluate the dietary value of pastures, including grasses, cereals, and other edible plants, and their by-products for animal feeds.
  • Explain the dietary value of seeds, including oil seeds, legume seeds and their by-products as food sources for animals.
  • Evaluate the dietary value of fodder plants, including trees and shrubs and their by-products, as a food source in animal production.
  • Determine suitable feed rations for a farm animal maintenance program.
  • Analyse the method(s) to determine suitable feed rations in a farm animal production program.
  • Evaluate the dietary value of protein in an animal production program.
  • Explain the factors affecting the composition of feed rations in animal production.

What You Will Do

  • Explain the importance of feed quality in livestock production.
  • Describe the various food groups that animal foodstuffs are based upon.
  • Define at least fifteen relevant industry terms related to livestock feed, feeding and feed processing.
  • Explain the role of water in animal nutrition.
  • Describe three different, commercially available, animal feeds, including the composition and appropriate uses for each.
  • List the chemical names of at least five different carbohydrates which are of importance to animal production.
  • Evaluate the roles of four different carbohydrates in animal metabolism.
  • List the important sources of carbohydrates for at least four different types of farm animals.
  • List the chemical names of at least five different fats which are important to animal production.
  • Compare fat deposition patterns in three different animals.
  • Explain the role of two different lipids in animal metabolism.
  • List the important sources of fats and lipids used in livestock feeds.
  • Explain the importance of proteins to animal production.
  • Describe the chemical composition of naturally occurring proteins.
  • List the sources of protein commonly used in foodstuffs for two different types of farm animal species.
  • Explain the differences in protein requirements for different animals.
  • List five vitamins of importance in livestock nutrition.
  • List five minerals of importance in livestock nutrition, including their: *source foods *requirement levels *physiological functions *deficiency symptoms.
  • List five trace elements of importance in livestock nutrition, and including their: *source foods *requirement levels *physiological functions *deficiency symptoms.
  • Prepare a one page chart or table comparing the vitamin, mineral, protein and trace elements components of three different commercial animal feeds.
  • Explain the function and source of the various nutritional components found in three different commercial livestock nutrient supplements.
  • Describe the components of a specified animal feed.
  • Distinguish between the 'protein value' and 'energy value' of two specified animal feeds.
  • Explain the concept of 'digestibility' as it relates to animal feed.
  • Describe the techniques used to calculate digestibility of animal feeds.
  • Perform a calculation of digestibility for a specified feed.
  • Describe two standard methods used to assess animal feeds.
  • Compare five different feeds, in terms of *composition *relative digestibility *palatability.
  • List at least five cereal and cereal by-product feeds used in animal production.
  • Describe the food value characteristics of five cereals and cereal by-product feeds used in animal production.
  • List at least five grasses and forage crops used as farm animal feeds.
  • Describe the dietary value of five forage crops, including grasses, used in animal production.
  • List at least five harvested feed products, including hay, roughage and silage used as feeds in animal production.
  • Explain the dietary value characteristics of five harvested feed products including hays, roughage and silage used in animal production.
  • Explain the dietary value of a growing pasture, on a farm visited and studied by you.
  • Compare the nutritional value to farm animals, of ten different pasture foodstuffs, including cereals, grasses, hay and their by-products.
  • List four oil seeds (or their by-products) used as feeds in animal production.
  • Explain the use of oil seeds (or their by-products) as animal feeds.
  • List three legume seeds used as feeds in animal production.
  • Evaluate the dietary value of three different legume seeds, as animal feeds.
  • Collect small samples of three oil seeds and three legume seeds.
  • Compare the characteristics of two different oil seed species, with two different legume seed species. -List five fodder plants (or their by-products) used as feed in animal production.
  • Provide recommendations on how three different fodder plant species may be used as an animal feed source on a specified farm.
  • Compare the nutritional value of three different fodder plant species.
  • Explain the objective of maintenance rationing in two different farm situations observed by you.
  • Explain the differences in feed rations given to maintain the same type of animal on two separate farms.
  • Describe the nutritional requirements of two different specified types of livestock.
  • Calculate a 'maintenance feed ration' for a specified farm animal.
  • Develop a maintenance feeding program, for a group of animals, such as a herd of cattle or flock of sheep.
  • Design three different types of animal feeds/rations, for three specified purposes.
  • Define, using examples, the concept of 'production rations'.
  • Explain the objective of production rationing in two different farm situations observed by you.
  • Explain the differences in the production feed ration given to maintain the same type of animal on two different farms.
  • Explain the nutritional requirements for a specified type of production livestock.
  • Calculate a 'production feed ration' for a specified farm animal.
  • Develop a production feeding program for a herd of milking dairy cattle, in a specified locality.
  • Explain the uses of ready-mix feeds as protein supplements for farm animals in two specified situations.
  • Calculate, using two different methods, the protein requirements of a production feed ration for a specified farm animal.
  • Explain the assumptions behind feed ration calculations for farm animals in a specified situation.
  • Explain the rationing factors, including food quality and palatability, for three different specified situations.
  • Describe the role of acids in two different specified animal diets.

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  Alison Pearce

University Lecturer, Quality Assurance Manager, Writer and Research Technician. Alison originally graduated with an honors degree in science from university and beyond that has completed post graduate qualifications in education and eco-tourism. She has managed veterinary operating theatre, responsible for animal anesthesia, instrument preparation, and assistance with surgical techniques and procedures.
  Anna Jones

Human Biology graduate, with post grad MSc in Equine Science. Tutor with ACS for a decade; in addition to time spent in managerial, research and lecturing positions elsewhere. She also has over a decade of practical animal management experience.
  Jade Sciascia

Biologist, Business Coordinator, Government Environmental Dept, Secondary School teacher (Biology); Recruitment Consultant, Senior Supervisor in Youth Welfare, Horse Riding Instructor (part-completed) and Boarding Kennel Manager. Jade has a B.Sc.Biol, Dip.Professional Education, Cert IV TESOL, Cert Food Hygiene.
  Marius Erasmus

Subsequent to completing a BSc (Agric) degree in animal science, Marius completed an honours degree in wildlife management, and a masters degree in production animal physiology. Following the Masters degree, he has worked for 9 years in the UK, and South Africa in wildlife management, dairy, beef and poultry farming.
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